William Mark Felt Sr. (August 17, 1913 – December 18, 2008) was a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) special agent and the Bureau's Associate Director, the FBI's second-highest-ranking post, from May 1972 until his retirement from the FBI in June 1973. During his time as Associate Director, Felt served as an anonymous informant, nicknamed "Deep Throat," to reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein of The Washington Post. He provided them with critical information about the Watergate scandal, a scandal which ultimately led to the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon in 1974. Though Felt's identity as Deep Throat was strongly suspected by some in Washington, including Nixon himself, and was speculated by many others, it generally remained a secret for the next 30 years. In 2005, Felt finally acknowledged that he was Deep Throat, after being persuaded by his daughter to reveal his identity.Felt worked in several FBI field offices prior to his promotion to the Bureau's headquarters in Washington, D.C. In 1980, Felt was convicted of having violated the civil rights of people thought to be associated with members of the Weather Underground, by ordering FBI agents to break into their homes and search the premises as part of an attempt to prevent bombings. He was ordered to pay a fine, but was pardoned by President Ronald Reagan during his appeal.
Felt published two memoirs: The FBI Pyramid in 1979 (updated in 2006), and A G-Man's Life, written with John O'Connor, in 2006. In 2012, the FBI released Felt's personnel file at the agency, covering the period from 1941 to 1978. It also released files pertaining to an extortion threat made against Felt in 1956.